There are many different definitions and characterisations of propositions. They are complex senses or intensions expressed by a sentence, assertive complexes of concepts and primary bearers of truth-values, referents of thatclauses, or sets of possible worlds. In most cases, they are characterised as objective non-mental and non-linguistic complexes, although they are grasped by a thinker and expressed by sentences. If propositions are wholes, they are clearly not aggregates, but structured wholes composed of parts, and they are often thought to be structured in a manner analogous to the way in which sentences are structured wholes composed of words. A mereological theory of propositions must have at least two parts: the mereology of simple, or atomic, propositions, and the mereology of complex, or molecular, propositions. In this entry both parts are treated as quite distinct. In the mereology of simple propositions I will assume sub-propositional parts (as the a and the
1 Bell, D., (1987), “Thought”, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 28 (1): 36-50.
2 Bell, D., (1996), “The Formation of Concepts and the Structure of Thoughts”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 66: 583-596.
3 Carnap, R., (1956), Meaning and Necessity, 2nd ed. with supplementary essays, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
4 Frege, G., (1984), “Thoughts” in Collected Papers on Mathematics, Logic, and Philosophy, McGuinness, B. (ed.), Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 351-72.
5 Gaskin, W., (2008), The Unity of Propositions, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6 Imaguire, G., (2001), Russells Frühphilosophie: Propositionen, Realismus und die Sprachontologische Wende, Hildesheim: Olms.
7 Kemmerling, A., (1900), “Gedanken und ihre Teile”, Grazer Philosophische Studien 37: 1-30.
8 King, J., (1995), “Structured Propositions and Complex Predicates”, Nous 29(4): 516-535.
9 King, J., (2007), The Nature and Structure of Content, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
10 Moore, G., (1899), ‘The Nature of Judgment’, Mind. Reprinted in Regan, T., 1986, G.E. Moore – The Early Essays, Philadelphia: Temple University.
11 Recanati, F., (2007), Perspectival Thought: A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
12 Russell, B., (1903), The Principles of Mathematics, London: Norton.
13 Russell, B., (1913), Theory of Knowledge, London: Routledge.
14 Wittgenstein, L., (1960), Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.