Non-literal Language Use and Part-Whole Relations
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Traditionally a distinction is made between the literal and the nonliteral or figurative use of language (but cf. Ortony ed. 1979; Lakoff & Johnson 1980; 1999; Panther et al. 2009). The two major strategies employed to extend the basic, literal meaning of a word are metaphor and metonymy. Metaphor is based on analogy and essentially involves the transfer of certain features from one conceptual domain to another (e.g. ‘John is a pig’ or ‘She was consumed with rage’). Metonymy (from Greek
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