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Medicine


Hans Burkhardt


Pages 315 - 331



The themes of this article are: (1) the hierarchical structure of the organism and the increasing granularity of the different levels of the organism, (2) the correspondence between the form of the body parts and their functions, (3) the relation between diseases and body parts, (4) the difference between proper parts and pseudoparts, and the pseudo-parts as causes of diseases, (5) different kinds of wholes, (6) different kinds of cancer and their mereological structure, (7) the boundaries between the organism as a whole and its environment, and the boundaries between the parts of the organism, (8) the difference between somatic and psychic boundaries, (9) the problem of a possible enlargement or diminution of psychic boundaries, (10) the possibility and the consequences of effects on other organisms, (11) the concept of biological and medical systems, subsystems and (13) the phenomenon of auto-regulative systems, (14) the systems of classification and taxonomy in biology and medicine, (15) and finally the different times of the two wholes, the somatic and the psychic whole.




1Department of Philosophy, Ludwig-Maximilians University at Munich



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