Skip to content

Emergence


Achim Stephan


Pages 200 - 206



During the last two decades the idea of emergence has seen a strong revival in many different fields and disciplines such as philosophy of mind, physics, biology, the social sciences, artificial life, connectionism, dynamical systems theory, theories of self-organisation, and theories of creativity. However, in these fields the notion of emergence is far from being used in a uniform way. While in ordinary language ‘emergence’ means something like the ‘coming into view or existence’, ‘rising above a surrounding medium’, or ‘occurring unexpectedly’, its technical use is associated with features such as ‘being novel, unpredictable, or irreducible’, ‘showing interesting non-programmed patterns’, or ‘having novel causal powers’.




1Institute of Cognitive Science, Osnabrück University



1 Beckermann, A.; Flohr, H.; Kim, J. (eds.), (1992), Emergence or Reduction? Essays on the Prospects of Nonreductive Physicalism. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

2 Bedau, M., (1997), “Weak Emergence”, Philosophical Perspectives 11: 375-399.

3 Bedau, M., (2010), “Weak Emergence and Context-Sensitive Reductionism” in Corradini, A.; O’Connor, T. (eds.), Emergence in Science and Philosophy, New York / London: Routledge, 46-63.

4 Bedau, M. A.; Humphreys, P. (eds.), (2007), Emergence: Contemporary Readings in Philosophy and Science, London: MIT Press.

5 Boogerd, F. C.; Bruggeman F. J.; Richardson, R. C.; Stephan, A.; Westerhoff, H. V., (2005), “Emergence and its Place in Nature: A Case Study of Biochemical Networks”, Synthese 145: 131-164.

6 Broad, C. D., (1925), The Mind and its Place in Nature, London: Kegan Paul.

7 Bunge, M., (2003), Emergence and Convergence. Qualitative Novelty and the Unity of Knowledge, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

8 Clark, A., (2001), Mindware. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, Oxford: Oxford University Press

9 Clayton, P.; Davies, P. (eds.), (2006), The Re-Emergence of Emergence. The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

10 Corradini, A.; O’Connor, T. (eds.), (2010), Emergence in Science and Philosophy, New York / London: Routledge.

11 Humphreys, P., (2008), “Synchronic and Diachronic Emergence”, Minds & Machines 18: 431-442.

12 Kim, J., (1999), “Making Sense of Emergence”, Philosophical Studies 95: 3-36.

13 Kim, J., (2006), “Being Realistic about Emergence”, in Clayton, P.; Davies, P. (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence. The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 189-202.

14 Lewes, G. H., (1875), Problems of Life and Mind. Volume 2. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Turbner, & Co.

15 Macdonald, C.; Macdonald, G. (eds.), (2010), Emergence in Mind, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

16 McLaughlin, B. P., (1992), “The Rise and Fall of British Emergentism”, in: Beckermann, A.; Flohr, H.; Kim, J. (eds.), Emergence or Reduction? Essays on the Prospects of Nonreductive Physicalism. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter, 49-93.

17 Mill, J. St., (1843), A System of Logic. Ratiocinative and Inductive. Collected Works, Vol. VII und VIII. Toronto, Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1974.

18 O’Connor, T.; Wong, H. Y., (2002) (substantive revision 2006), “Emergent Properties”, in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Zalta, E. N. (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/properties-emergent/

19 O’Connor, T.; Wong, H. Y., (2005), “The Metaphysics of Emergence”, Nous 39: 659-679.

20 Stephan, A., (2007), Emergenz. Von der Unvorhersagbarkeit zur Selbstorganisation, Paderborn: Mentis Verlag.

21 Van, Gulick, R., (2001), “Reduction, Emergence and Other Recent Options on the Mind-Body Problem: A Philosophical Overview”, Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 No. 9-10: 1-34.

22 Varela, F. J.; Thompson, E.; Rosch, E., (1991), The Embodied Mind. Cognitive Science and Human Experience, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Share


Export Citation