- Volume 1 (2017)
- Vol. 1 (2017)
- >
- Issue 1
- No. 1
- >
- Pages 193 - 195
- pp. 193 - 195

The term dynamical system is used in a loose sense and in a precise sense which is associated with dynamical systems theory. Any object or group of objects subject to a development in time can loosely be called a dynamical system; in this sense dynamical systems are closely associated with ^{t}, T>, where M is the multidimensional state or phase space of the system, f^{t} is the evolution rule that relates the state at each time to states at other times, and T is the onedimensional space of points in time (so that t ∈ T).

**1**
Abraham, R. H.; Shaw, C. D., (1992), Dynamics: The Geometry of Behaviour, Redwood City: Addison-Wesley.

**2**
Auyang, S., (1998), Foundations of Complex System Theories, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

**3**
Berger, R., (1998), “Understanding Science: Why Causes Are Not Enough”, Philosophy of Science 65: 306-332.

**4**
Hasselblatt, B.et al. (eds.), (2002), Handbook of Dynamical Systems. 2 vols, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

**5**
Holmes, M., (1995), Introduction to Perturbation Methods, New York: Springer

**6**
Kellert, S., (1993), In the Wake of Chaos, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

**7**
Newman, D., (1996), “Emergence and Strange Attractors”, Philosophy of Science 63: 246-261.

**8**
Port, R. F.; van Gelder, T. (eds.), (1995), Mind as Motion, Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press.

**9**
Rueger, A., (2000), “Physical Emergence, Diachronic and Synchronic”, Synthese 124: 297-322.

**10**
Smith, P., (1998), Explaining Chaos, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

**11**
Silverstein, M.; McGeever, J., (1999), “The Search for Ontological Emergence”, Philosophical Quarterly 49: 182-200.