Bergmann (1906-1987) argues that the problem of wholes (complexes) is the deepest problem of ontology since solutions to all other problems depend on how we approach the problem of complexes. According to Bergmann, the key element for a solution of the problem of complexes lies in the acknowledgement of a fundamental tie or ‘nexus’ which connects the constituents of a complex. Most ontologists assume a homogeneous fundamental tie, which ties entities of the
1 Bergmann, G., (1967), Realism, Madison: University of Madison Press.
2 Bergmann, G., (1964), “Synthetic Apriori”, in Bergmann, G., Logic and Reality, Madison: University of Madison Press.
3 Bergmann, G., (1964), “The Ontology of Edmund Husserl”, in Bergmann, G.: Logic and Reality, Madison.
4 Goodman, N., (1951), The Structure of Appearance, Cambridge Mass.