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Ludger Jansen

Pages 529 - 534

Substances are traditionally considered to be independent and fundamental entities; they are said to be the ‘bearers’ of properties and relations, as well as participants in events, or even the locus where changes happen. Some elements of this conception can be traced back to the Presocratics and Plato, who considered as primary entities either material elements (mostly earth, water, air, and/or fire) or transcendent forms (the ‘Platonic ideas’), respectively. However, the first comprehensive theoretical development of this conception is to be found in Aristotle, who integrated the extant component lines of thought into a coherent category theory that was to become the most influential approach in the history of ontology so far.

1Institute of Philosophy, University of Rostock

1 Aristotle The Complete Works. The Revised Oxford Translation, ed. by J. Barnes, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press 1984.

2 Aquinas, Th. On being and essence, transl. with an introd. and notes by Armand Maurer, 2., rev. ed., Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies 1983.

3 Barnes, J., (1988), “Bits and Pieces”, in: Barnes, J.; Mignucci, M. (eds.), Matter and Metaphysics, Naples: Bibliopolis, 224-294; repr. in: J. Barnes, Method and Metaphysics. Essays in Ancient Philosophy I, Oxford: Clarendon Press 2011: 429-483.

4 Descartes, R.“Principles of Philosophy”, in: Cottingham, J.; Stoothoff, R.; Murdoch, D. (eds.), The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1985: 177-291.

5 Gill, M.-L., (1989), Aristotle on Substance. The Paradox of Unity, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

6 Hoffman, J.; Rosenkrantz, G. S., (1994), Substance among Other Categories, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

7 Jansen, L. “Die Struktur der Substanz bei Thomas von Aquin”, in: Gutschmidt, H.; Lang-Balestra, A.; Segalerba, G. (eds.), 2008, Substantia – Sic et Non. Eine Geschichte des Substanzbegriffs von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart in Einzelbeiträgen, Frankfurt: Ontos, 181-209.

8 Halfwassen, J.; Wald, B.; Arndt, H. W.; Trappe, T.; Schantz, R., (1998), “Substanz; Substanz/Akzidens”, in: J. Ritter et al., eds., Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, vol. 10, Basel: Schwabe, coll. 495-553.

9 Kahn, Ch., (1978), “Questions and Categories”, in Hiz, H. (ed.), Questions, Dordrecht/Boston: Reidel.

10 Kant, I. Critique of Pure Reason, transl. by Guyer, P.; Wood, A. W., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

11 Koslicki, K., (2008), The Structure of Objects, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

12 Loux, M. J., (1978), Substance and Attribute. A Study in Ontology, Dordrecht/Boston: Reidel.

13 Marmodoro, A., (2013), “Aristotle’s Hylomorphism without Reconditioning”, Philosophical Inquiry 36: 1-22.

14 McCall, R. E., (1956), The Reality of Substance, Washington DC: The Catholic University of America Press.

15 Spinoza, B. A Spinoza Reader: The Ethics and Other Works, transl. E. Curley, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press 1994.

16 Scaltas, Th., (1994), Substances and Universals in Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Ithaca.


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