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Subject, Person, Self


Bartłomiej Skowron


Pages 525 - 528



The subject (Latin subiectum) is that which encounters the object (Latin obiectum), or equivalently it is what can be referred to the object. An object is anything to which some reference could be made. It is everything that is thrown ‘in front of’, or ‘opposite of’, the subject. Thus, every subject in this sense can be an object, because we can refer to it. However, the subject moves, grows, thinks, feels, sees, calculates, loves, etc. Therefore the subject in its ontological form, as phenomenologists used to say, is the fulfiller of acts.




1International Center for Formal Ontology, Faculty of Administration and Social Sciences, Warsaw University of Technology



1 Frankfurt, H., (1971), “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person”, The Journal of Philosophy 68: 5-20.

2 Lewin, K., (1936), Principles of Topological Psychology, translated by Fritz and Grace Heider, New York: McGraw-Hill.

3 Parfit, D., (1975), “Personal Identity”, in Perry, J. (ed.), Personal Identity (Berkeley: University of California Press), 199-226.

4 Parfit, D., (1984), Reasons and Persons, Oxford Clarendon Press.

5 Parfit, D., (1995), “The Unimportance of Identity”, in Harris, H. (ed.), Identity, Oxford University Press, 13-45.

6 Pervin, L. A., John O. P., (2001), Personality: Theory and Research, 8th ed. John Wiley&Sons, Inc. New York.

7 Seibt, J., (2000), “Fission, Fusion, and Survival: Parfit’s Branch Line Case Revisited”, Metaphysica 2: 106-134.

8 Seibt, J.; Nørskov, M., (2012), “Embodying’ the internet: Towards the Moral Self Via Communication Robots?” Philosophy and Technology 25: 285-307.

9 Stróżewski, W., (1981), Istnienie i wartość, (The Existence and Value), Znak, Kraków.

10 Szewczyk, J., (1987), O fenomenologii Edmunda Husserla, (Edmund Husserl’s Phenomenology), Warszawa.

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